Kenya's capital city Nairobi has some of the most dense, unsanitary and insecure slums in the world. Almost half of the city's population lives in over 100 slums and squatter settlements within the city, with little or inadequate access to safe water and sanitation. Housing conditions in slums are deplorable and most residents have no form of secure tenure. The Kenya Slum Upgrading Programme (KENSUP) is the result of a meeting in November 2000 between the then President of Kenya and the Executive Director of UN-HABITAT at which the Executive Director offered to spearhead a slum upgrading programme for Kenya starting with Nairobi's largest slum, Kibera. The programme was jointly funded by the UN-HABITAT/World Bank Cities Alliance and the Government of Kenya. The Grant agreement was signed in July 2002. A Memorandum of Understanding was signed between the Minister of Roads, Public Works and Housing and UN-HABITAT's Executive Director on 15 January 2003. This marked the starting point of the Preparatory Phase of the programme, which is jointly funded by the Government of Kenya and the Cities Alliance. The objective of the programme is to improve the overall livelihoods of people living and working in slums through targeted interventions to address shelter, infrastructure services, land tenure and employment issues, as well as the impact of HIV/AIDS in slum settlements. The process started with the preparation of programme documents, which outlined the elements of the programme, institutional arrangements and a logical framework for implementation.
i) Institutional arrangements for implementation - The following institutional structures have been established:
- Inter-Agency Coordination Committee (IACC) with membership of the Ministry of Roads, Public Works and Housing, the Ministry of Lands and Settlement, the Ministry of Local Government, the Ministry of Water and the Nairobi City Council;
- A national KENSUP Secretariat at the Ministry of Roads, Public Works and Housing;
- Programme Implementation (PIU) at the Housing Development Department of the Nairobi City Council;
- Settlement Programme Implementation Unit (SPIU) to be based in each of the settlements;
- A Settlement Executive Committee (SEC) made up of community members in each settlement.
(ii) Social and Economic mapping - The Social and Economic mapping exercise has resulted in:
- An Actors Survey that has documented the various actors in the 12 villages in Kibera slum;
- Social Mobilization activities that have been undertaken through numerous meetings to sensitize the communities on slum upgrading;
- A Communication/Media Strategy to ensure that all aspects of the Programme are effectively communicated to all stakeholders operating in Kibera;
- A Social and Economic Profile of Kibera documented by Research International, an international consulting firm.
(iii) Physical Mapping - A digitized base map of Kibera features:
- Detailed information showing the physical features of the 12 villages comprising the slum;
- Detailed information on structures in Kibera, describing ownership, use and type of structure (permanent or temporary);
- A typical layout for Kibera-Soweto showing the rearrangement of structures to lessen density and provide services.
(iv) Decanting site - A decanting site, provided by the Government, is being prepared. The decanting site will house the residents of Kibera who will have to be moved to make way for upgraded infrastructure and services. Results